Surendra S. WadikarTopiwala National Medical College, India
Title: Neuroimmuno-endocrine dysregulation in stress
Stress & stress related disorders are emerging as a major health challenge in the world. Stress is defined as an actual or anticipated disruption of homeostasis by physiological, environmental or psychological events that are known as “stressors”. A stressor is a stimulus or environmental condition in which the response demands exceed the adaptive capacity of the organism. While response to stress is an adaptive survival mechanism, prolonged stress can have detrimental effects causing neuro-endocrine and immunological disruption leading to physical and mental disorders. When the subject fails to cope with the stressor resulting in psychological and physiological responses that are insufficient or inappropriate, the complex intercommunication between three regulatory systems, namely the nervous, endocrine and immune systems is disrupted and the consequent loss of homeostasis leads to adverse health outcomes. Mutual relations between the neuroendocrine and immune systems are mediated through a number of neuro-hormones, neurotransmitters, as well as cytokines. Exposure to stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary axis (SAM), which provokes the release of stress hormones. Effector hormones of HPA axis are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and Glucocorticoids (GC) cortisol, and that of SAM axis are catecholamines (CA) like norepinephrine and epinephrine, which modulate immune function. Immune modulation can occur either directly through the binding of the stress hormone to its receptor at the surface of immune cell, which triggers changes in cell function or indirectly, by altering the production of cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF, which affect different target cells. Main cytokines involved in the immune-nervous system communication (SI-SN) are: IL-1, TNF-?, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-12 and IL-10. The cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the CNS via cytokines has important implications for modulation of host defence systems in stress condition.
Dr. Surendra Shripati Wadikar is Additional Professor in Physiology working at Topiwala National Medical College, B. Y. L. Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai, attached to Maharashtra University of Health Sciences, India. His qualification is M.B.B.S. and M.D. in Human Physiology from Mumbai University, Associate Fellow in Industrial Health awarded by Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India and Postgraduate Diploma in Medico-legal System awarded by Symbiosis Institute, Pune, India. He has a rich experience in medical teaching and research and his research papers on stress physiology are published in several National and International Journals. His major area of research is stress physiology, cardiovascular and neurophysiology and yoga therapy. His chapter titled “Stress, Hypertension and Yoga” in the book titled, “Effects of stress on human health” Edited by Hülya Çakmur and published by IntechOpen Publishers, London, United Kingdom in 2020 was critically acclaimed by the scientific community. He has been invited as a Guest Editor, Reviewer by many national and international journals and as a speaker in various international conferences. He was awarded “Best Educationist Award” and “Rashtriya Vidya Gaurav Gold Medal Award” in 2017 by the reputed educational institutes in India.